The Patagonia also known as “The Great South” means a geographical area belonging to the Southern Cone located in the south of South America. Patagonia extends mainly in Argentina, about 1,140,532 km2, and all along the coast Pacific from Chile to 256 093 km 2. These two countries separated by the Andes, home to varied landscapes of mountains, of glaciers, of Pampa, of forests subpolar of shoreline, with islands and archipelagos. Inhabited for over 10,000 years by South American Indians such as the Mapuche, the Tehuelches or Selknams, these lands were described for the first time by the Italian Antonio Pigafetta in his account of the first world tour of the Portuguese navigator Ferdinand Magellan published in 1525.
After a settlement slow and difficult, most indigenous disappeared, replaced by a population mixed can be called a “Sudamericano-European”. With a density of 3.8 inhabitants per km 2 ( 3 per km 2 in Siberia , 0.46 capita in Alaska ), Patagonia is one of the least populated regions in the world. Its land is used for rearing cattle in huge farms called ranches or coveted for their important natural resources. It represents the environmental interests and géonomiques important that elicit envy.