The Namib Desert is a coastal city in southern Africa. The name Namib is of Nama origin and means “place”. According to the broadest definition of the Namib stretches over 2,000 kilometers (1,200 miles) along the Atlantic coast of Angola, Namibia and South Africa, south of the river Carunjamba in Angola, Namibia and the Olifants River, Western Cape, South Africa. The northernmost part of the Namib 450 kilometers (280 miles) extends from the Angola-Namibia border, is known as the desert Moçâmedes, while its southern approaches near the Kalahari Desert. The Atlantic coast to the east, the Namib Desert is gradually increased in height, up to 200 kilometers (120 miles) inside the base of the escarpment of the Great. Annual rainfall is between 2 millimeters (0.079 inches) in the driest areas to 200 millimeters (7.9 inches) on the slope so that the Namib Desert in southern Africa, the only true. Dry and semi-arid conditions around 80-55000000 preserved for years, the Namib Desert is the oldest desert in the world.
The geology consists of sandy desert lake near the coast, while the gravel plains and mountains scattered outcrops occur further inland. Sand dunes, about 300 meters (980 ft) tall and spread 32 km (20 miles) long, are the second largest in the world after the Badan Jaran desert dunes in China. Temperatures on the coast are stable and generally between 9-20 ° C (48-68 ° F) per year, while summer temperatures inside variable daytime temperatures can exceed 45 ° C. (113 ° F), while at night it can freeze. Fog off the coast from the collision of the cold Benguela current air and warm the Hadley cell, a belt of fog often covers parts of the desert. Coastal regions may experience more than 180 days of dense fog per year. Although this is a great danger to ships, more than a thousand wrecks litter showed the Skeleton Coast is an important source of moisture for life in the desert.
The Namib is almost completely uninhabited by humans except a few small colonies pastoral and indigenous groups, including the Ovahimba Obatjimba Herero and in the north, and the Nama Topnaar in the central region. Because of their age, Namid be home more endemic species than any other desert in the world. Most of desert wildlife is arthropods and other small animals that live on a little water, although larger animals that inhabit the northern regions. Near the coast, the cold seawater rich in fish stocks and supports populations of brown fur seals and shorebirds, which serve as prey for the lion’s Skeleton Coast. Further inland, supports the Namib-Naukluft National Park, the largest game reserve in Africa, elephant populations in Africa Bush, mountain zebra and other large mammals. Although outside the Namib is largely barren of vegetation, are lichens and succulents found in coastal areas, while the production of grass, shrubs and plants near the steep ephemeral. Some tree species can survive in extremely arid climate.
A number of rare species of plants and animals are found in the desert, many of which are endemic and highly adapted to specific climate of the region. One of the most endemic plants of the Namib is the bizarre Welwitschia mirabilis, a plant shrub, it grows two long strap-shaped leaves, continues throughout his life. This leaves several meters long, gnarled and twisted to be against the desert wind. The taproot of the plant grows in a flat, concave disc in age. Welwitschia is notable for its survival in the extremely dry conditions in the Namib Desert, most often pull moisture from the fog of the coastal sea. One area where the Welwitschia are a common sight in the neighborhood of the Valley of the Moon, including the Welwitschia plains same place.
The fauna of the Namib most arthropods and other small animals that can live on little water, but few large animal species are also found, including antelopes and gazelles (such as oryx and springbok), ostriches, and even in parts of the desert elephants. All these species have developed techniques to survive in the Namib Desert. A number of endemic species of darkling beetles, such as the Namib Desert beetle elytra have embossed with a pattern of hydrophilic and hydrophobic hollow bumps. This causes the moisture from fog in the morning to condensate into drops that roll down the back of the insect in his mouth, they are collectively referred to as “bug spray” known. Another insect, which builds Lepidochora discoidalis, “the water capture “tracks. backed Jackals lick moisture stones. Oryx (also known as Oryx), the body temperature to 40 ° C increase in the hottest hours of the day. The desert is also home to several species of lizards and meerkats.