Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon ) is an Asian island nation in the Indian Ocean.The natives of Sri Lanka are the Vedas, a hunting people who lived in clans with monarchical structs. Today, the Vedas, are threatened with extinction because there are only a few hundred of you.
From the 5th Century BC by settlers migrated north Indian king Vijaya, and thus began Sinhalese history. Shortly thereafter they were followed by South Indian Tamils. In the 2nd Century BC was indeed the Buddhisms of indene on the island, but was not yet as widespread as today. Tamils and Sinhalese were subsequently kingdoms were ruled by the magnificent temples. The Sinhalese Buddhist kingdoms established, the Hindu Tamils. Both groups were fighting a long time to Vormachtssellung in the country and lived peacefully with each other and at other times mixed. During these conflicts, it also came to the concentration of Tamils in the north and the Sinhalese in the south.
From 1500 the colonial period began with the Portuguese . In the 17th Sri Lanka century Dutch and 18th Century British . In particular, the British colonial era has shaped the country until today, because at that time, the country has developed greatly: the infrastructure has been built or improved, tea plantations were laid out, established a school system and the British administration, so much resembles the present-day Sri Lanka the time under British rule. The British brought Tamils over the years as cheap labor on the island, which was due to strong opposition led back to known issues. In 1948, Sri Lanka (then Ceylon) independently. (Sri = Bright, island Lanka = -> Radiant Island).
In the fifties, established a nationalist government, which pushed through the favor of the Sinhalese, which caused again to tensions between Tamils and Sinhalese. In the seventies, joined forces and Tamil parties called for a Tamil state. The conflict escalated in 1983 and it began a long “civil war” that was happening but mainly in the occupied territories of Tamils. In the rest of the country committed to the Tamil “Tigers” of the LTTE-party attacks and attacks on individuals and key objectives (President, airport, buildings, etc.).
After Indian peacekeeping troops were withdrawn in 1990 after heavy losses by the Tigers, did nothing for a long time in the direction of a peace process. It was only in 2002 by Norwegian support a cease-fire was reached. Even today, in 2005, the conflict is still present, there are still attacks on politicians and blocked roads are in Colombo city.
Because of this conflict lasts a long time, uses up a lot of money and resources and people can live long in uncertainty, many Sinhalese and Tamils for lasting peace – if need be at a loss to the Tamil provinces (North East). Just crazy enough, the Buddhist monks protesting against because they further land acquisition by the Tamils and befüchten afraid ‘to let it out of hand’ cultural monuments such as temples and sacred sites. The propaganda of influential monks is a serious threat to the peace process through land allocation.
In May 2009, the Tamil Tigers were defeated militarily by the government troops and end the nearly three decades of conflict. The threat of possible attacks or other attacks has been reduced so much that can be recognized even by the relaxed security precautions. Especially when traveling to the former conflict zones in the East (Trincomalee, Batticaloa, Pottuvil) with far less restrictions and delays to compute. In the city of Colombo is also a significant easing seen and many of the previously closed streets and squares are again open and unobstructed.
The trip to Sri Lanka is almost exclusively by air via Katunayaka Bandaranaike Airport near Colombo. Arriving by train, bus or car is only possible through Southern India, from Chennai (Madras), then there are regular flights to Colombo. After the set was almost 30 years because of civil war, the ferry service between India and Sri Lanka, has been operating since mid 2011, again on the ferry just 55km narrow strait between the two countries. The Government of Sri Lanka is hoping to be using another ferry on this route.
The traffic is different in its composition and organization significantly from that in Europe and the rest of the “western world”. So there are only a few cars, but it all the more so-called “Three Wheeler” or “tuk-tuks” that serve as taxis cheaper substitute. The amount of traffic and in particular in the villages often only moderate pavement allow only a slow pace regardless of the vehicle. Since there is no explicit highways and instead all roads lead through the middle of each of the villages, in the long run is an average speed of 40 km / h hard to beat, no matter what vehicle.