Sofia is the capital of Bulgaria and the district (oblast) Sofia city with 1,291,591 inhabitants (2010). This is home to almost one in five (17.5 percent) residents of Bulgaria, Sofia. Sofia is the political, economic and cultural center of Bulgaria and its most important transportation hub. In the city there is a university in 1888 and several other universities, colleges, theaters, museums and cultural institutions.
Sofia is the Sofiaebene to a broad plateau in the west, near the border with Serbia. Five mountain passes leading into the plane and thus to Sofia – the Iskar pass that Wladaja Pass, the Dragoman Pass, the Pass and Petrohan Botevgrad Pass. The city is located on the northern slope of the 2290 m high Vitosha Mountains, which is a popular destination for Sofia, and dominates the scenery around the city. The basic shape of the Vitosha mountain, is nearly circular with a diameter of about 15 km. To the west of the city borders the Lyulin – and lots of mountains.
In the north and northeast to run about 50 kilometers from the Sofiagebirge and Murgasch Mountains, part of the Balkan Mountains are, which runs east-west direction through the whole of Bulgaria and divides the country into a northern and a southern half. This mountain is the namesake for the entire Balkan peninsula. Flows through the eastern districts of the longest river in Bulgaria, the Iskar. Also, two of its tributaries, the Perlowska and Wladajska traverse the city, the urban landscape but hardly see.
In the center of Sofia, in the neighborhoods Owtscha kupel, Knjaschewo, Gorna Banya and Pantscharewo mineral springs exist, its use since ancient times has been demonstrated.
Sofia has had a centuries-old history. What is certain is that the city has existed for over 5000 years, and the more recent archaeological finds suggest that there is an even 8,000 years ago Stone Age settlement was. This would mean that Sofia is one of the oldest cities in Europe.