Siena is the name of a city and a former city-state in the center of the Italian Tuscany. The city has 54 543 inhabitants (as of 31 December 2010) and is known for the Palio di Siena, a horse race, the most central square Piazza del Campo is discharged. Siena is one of the most beautiful cities of Tuscany and Italy. Right from time immemorial it is in rivalry with Florence, politically, economically or artistically. While in Florence, as a prime example of a renaissance – City particularly impressed by the sheer size and its architectural and artistic works, Siena is the medieval character of Italian Gothic architecture preserved. The historic old town is since 1995 on UNESCO’s world heritage.
The University of Siena, founded in 1240, is one of the oldest universities in Italy and is visited by about 20,000 students. Comes from the Siena Saints Catherine of Siena and the singer Gianna Nannini , whose father ran a number of cafes here, now by her brother, the former racing driver Alessandro will be performed.
Siena is probably an Etruscan settlement and was back under Roman rule a colony called Julia Saena. Their real importance was the city but only in the Middle Ages. Like other Italian cities, it gradually became independent and was in the 12th Konsularregierung century. In the dispute between the emperor and the papacy was Siena – in contrast to Florence – on the Ghibelline side, and thereby received various privileges. In essence, hiding behind the conflict but an economic rivalry between the two commercial cities. In the battle of Montaperti 1260, the Florentines were defeated. The following years saw a decline but the Ghibellines with it. Inside, there were constant political infighting, but did not prevent an economic boom in the city.
1389 concluded an alliance with the Sienese Gian Galeazzo Visconti, she for some years, depending on Milan did. 1487 took Pandolfo Petrucci, the power and ruled despotically, though he did not formally antastete forms the government. Unlike the similar way in Florence ruling Medici family, he managed not to found a dynasty, and after his death in 1512, the city was soon under the protection of Charles V. The citizens revolted against the growing tyranny of the Spaniards, but 1555 Siena was conquered after a long siege, and two years later as a fief of Cosimo I de ‘Medici, where, under which it was part of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.