Senegal officially the Republic of Senegal is a country in West Africa. It is named after the river, the Senegal is bordered to the east and north named. Senegal is on the outside by the Atlantic Ocean in the west, Mauritania to the north, Mali to the east, and Guinea and Guinea-Bissau to the south, internally it almost completely surrounds Gambia, namely the short north, east and south, through the liberation of the Gambia the Atlantic coast. Senegal has an area of almost 197 000 square kilometers (76,000 square miles), and has an estimated population of about 13 million €. The climate is tropical with two seasons: the dry season and rainy season.
Dakar, Senegal’s capital, lies at the western end of the country located on the peninsula of Cape Verde. About 500 km (300 miles) off the coast in the Atlantic Ocean are the islands of Cape Verde. During the 17th and 18 Century, many contributions from different colonial empires were built along the coast. The city of St. Louis was the capital of French West Africa (French West Africa, or AOF) before it moved to Dakar in 1902. Dakar was the capital later in the year 1960 at the time of independence from France.
The country is named after the river Senegal, whose etymology is disputed. A popular theory (proposed by David Boilat in 1853) is that it is from the Wolof sunu Gaal sentence that “our boat” (or canoe), caused by poor communication between the Portuguese navigators 15th C means comes. Fishermen and Wolof. Modern historians believe his name is probably an allusion to Zenaga Berbers living on the north side of the river. A competing theory is that it is described by the medieval “Sanghana” (also given as Isenghan, Asengan, Singhanah), followed by the Arab geographer al-Bakri in 1068, located at the mouth comes River. Nevertheless, “our boat” theory became popular in modern Senegal for its charm and its use in the calls for national solidarity (eg “we’re all in this together”) are often heard in the media, embraced.
Some people believe Serer from the south of the river name originates from the combination of the term Serer “Sene” (from Rogé Sene, supreme deity in the religion Serer) and “O Gal” (which means “derived from the body of water”).
The French created the Grand Council of French West Africa in the fields and only French citizens and citizens to monitor the four communities in Senegal, the members. Colonized peoples only French were as subjects, they were prevented from taking power, to prove, but in 1914, Blaise Diagne was that he (was born in St. Louis) in one of the towns and became the first black man elected to the colonies take with them. He passed a law for the citizens of Dakar, St. Louis, Rufisque, Goree and vote can be held in French and sent many West Africans to France during the First World War to help.
Senegal and French Sudan (modern Mali) combine to form the Mali Federation in 1959. The following year, France has agreed to give them independence and 20 June 1960, he officially became independent from France. Senegal were soon on the Federation of Mali, and became an independent state in August 1960. Senegal came shortly Gambia to form the nation of Senegambia in 1982, but they separated before the year ends. Are problems with separatists in Casamance in southern Senegal since the 1980s put it, but a contract was signed in 2004, which was confirmed today.
Senegal is often praised for its inclusion of all ethnic and religious groups in a peaceful society.