Sarajevo is the capital and seat of government of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Federacija of Bosnia Hercegovine / FBiH) and the Canton of Sarajevo. In addition, it was until 2008 the official capital of the Republika Srpska. The city has 304 000 inhabitants of Sarajevo, in and around Sarajevo, the Sarajevo Canton the whole of the Federation and the Republika Srpska belonging Istočno Sarajevo (East Sarajevo covers), approximately 500,000 people live. Sarajevo is thus the most populous urban center in the country.
The city extends east-west direction in the plane of Sarajevo in the middle of Dinaric Alps. The river Miljacka flows through the city, the Bosna rises west of the city, in the municipality Ilidža. The plain is dominated by the mountains of Bjelasnica and Igman in the southwest and the Jahorina and Trebevic in the southeast. The town center is 511 meters above sea level. The suburbs reach up to over 900 meters. The mostly forested hills surrounding the town are up to 2,000 meters high. Just east of Sarajevo, the town of Pale, which was during the last war the center of the Bosnian Serbs.
Towards the end of the 15th Century, a Turkish governor had his residence on the banks of the Miljacka pitched. After that Saray (Turkish palace) a short time later the rapidly burgeoning city of Sarajevo was named. The town’s name was revealed by the Turkish saray or saray ova derived the name of the current German Seraglio equivalent. In 1238/39, in a document of the Hungarian King Bela IV in connection with the construction of St. Peter’s Cathedral for the first time a Slavic settlement called Vrhbosna mentioned. As of 1463 was the beginning of Ottoman rule under Isa-Beg Isakovic, one to Islam came via Bosnia, the expansion of the city. Since 1850, Sarajevo, capital of the province of Bosnia in the Ottoman Empire, after 1878 then the administrative center of Austria-Hungary dominated “condominium”.
On 28 June 1914, the city was the scene of the fatal assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife Sophie, that the outbreak of World War I contributed. After 1918, Sarajevo, Bosnia came with the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. In the Second World War, the country 1941-1945 to the Independent State of Croatia, after its collapse and the war in Sarajevo in 1945 the capital of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina within Yugoslavia. 1984 took the Olympic Winter Games in Sarajevo and its surrounding mountains instead. Since 1992, it is the capital of the sovereign state of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Its declaration of independence from Yugoslavia led to the Bosnian war in Sarajevo, which was hotly contested.