San Marino (Italian Repubblica di San Marino, nicknamed La Serenissima) is the oldest existing republic in the world with a history that goes back to the year 301. It is entirely of Italy and surrounding regions between the Emilia-Romagna (Rimini Province) and brands (province of Pesaro and Urbino), near the Adriatic coast near Rimini . The rocky ridge Monte Titano crowns the fortress of La Guaita. San Marino has nine municipalities.
The inhabitants of San Marino are of Italian origin. Today, 83.1 percent live in San Marino San Marinesen and 12 percent of Italians. San Marino has 31 948 inhabitants (as of April 2011). Whom live in the capital city of San Marino 4301. The largest settlement is Serravalle with 10 404 inhabitants. In Borgo Maggiore, live 6393, in Domagnano 3128, in Fiorentino 2505 in Acquaviva 2069, in Faetano 1.182, in Chiesa Nuova in 1051 and Montegiardino 915 persons. Furthermore, 12 800 citizens living abroad, mainly in Italy, the United States, France and Argentina. Live in San Marino 16 253 women (50.9%).
The population density is 527.5 inhabitants per square kilometer. The birth rate for the period 2000 to 2004 was 10.6 per 1,000 population, the mortality rate was 6.8 per 1,000 population, so that the population of San Marino is still growing. Life expectancy at birth in 2004 was 78.57 years for men and 84.95 years for women. The average life expectancy is 81.5 years. According to the World Health Organization, San Marino is a country with the highest life expectancy for men.
The official language is Italian. The strong tourist orientation of the state because nearly all inhabitants speak a foreign language fluently, mostly English, German or French. Distributed mainly among older generations is a dialect of Romagna (Romagnol), the part from the nearby brand is affected.