Romania (Romanian România) is a semi-presidential republic in the geographical border region between Central and Southeastern Europe. The country lies on the Black Sea and extends in a westerly direction across the Carpathians to the Pannonian lowlands. Romania borders on five countries: the south by Bulgaria, on the west by Serbia and Hungary, on the north by Ukraine, on the east by Moldova and Ukraine again.
The modern Romanian state was created in 1859 by the union of the principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia. In 1918 the territory was in Transylvania (Transylvania) expanded. After 1945, Romania during the Cold War, part of the Warsaw Pact. Since 1989, Romania has brought these countries politically from West European countries and became a member of NATO (2004) and the European Union (2007).
With 238.391 km², Romania has the ninth largest in area and about 21 million inhabitants, the seventh largest population of all EU countries. The Romanian capital Bucharest, nearly two million inhabitants, is the sixth largest city in the EU.
The Romanian term România (Romania) comes from român (Romanian), which in turn is a derivative of the Latin Romanus (Romans, Roman). In the 16th Century Italian traveler reported that residents in the area of present-day Romania itself Romans called it. In a letter to merchant Neacsu of 1521, the Principality of Wallachia as the Romanian land (Romanian: Tara Romaneasca) refers. The modern equivalent România is early in the 19th Century common.
Historical documents show the spelling Ruman and român to refer to the Romanians, who was originally a synonym were used. In the 17th Century was the dominant form of speech Ruman the importance serf, while român retained its importance as a description of the Romanians. After the abolition of serfdom, the mid-18th Century was the form Ruman gradually lost from the language is in German but to date stemming from Romania.