Prague is the capital and most populous city in the Czech Republic. The capital Prague (Praha Hlavní město) is an independent administrative unit. The area surrounding the city is densely populated since prehistoric times. The Slavic colonization began in the 6th Century in an area that for over 500 years of the Germanic Marcomanni was inhabited. After the establishment of two castles by the Přemyslid in the 9th and 10 Century were Jewish and German merchants in the country. By 1230, Prague became the residential city of the Kingdom of Bohemia in the 14th and Century as the capital of the Holy Roman Empire into a political and cultural center of Central Europe. Prague was the first university in Central and Eastern Europe established.
The “Golden City” shows a closed today, of Gothic and Baroque embossed cityscape. Prague lies in the western Czech Republic on the Vltava River, some 40 kilometers from the mouth into the Elbe. The distance to the outermost boundary points is about 110 kilometers to the north, west and south, each about 170 to about 320 east (to the old Bohemian eastern boundary approximately 170; each distance).
Much of the city lies in a broad valley of the Vltava River, which flows through the city at 30 kilometers in length and in the northern part of a large loop is formed. At the southern arc of this loop is the historic city center, dominated by the two mounds in the north (Opyš or Hradcany) and south (Vysehrad). The rest is spread over more hills surrounding the valley: Letná, Vítkov, Větrov, Skalka, Emauzy, Karlov and the highest of them, the Petrin. By incorporation principally in the 20th Century, the city now extends far into the plateau Prague (Pražská plošina) from inside.
The Vltava River in the south occurs at an altitude of about 190 meters into the city and leave it to the north at around 176 meters. You have here an average depth of 2.75 meters at a maximum depth of 10.5 meters. It flows around several islands, including the south of the Charles Bridge, located Slovanský ostrov, Dětský ostrov and Střelecký (the latter from it visible) and the western part of the Charles Bridge carrying Kampa, and takes on many rivers, among which the largest are the Berounka north of Zbraslav from the west, the Botič between New Town and Vysehrad on the east and the Rokytka in the port of Libeň are also from the east. The greatest heights are on the west and south of the city. In the west, reached the White Mountain (Bila Hora) 381 meters to the southwest city limits of which are 397 meters measured. In the south rises to 385 meters Čihadlo.
In the capital Prague has about 1.2 million people, which are well over a tenth of the total population of the country. The majority, however, distributed to the various suburbs and the new development areas on the outskirts. The historic city has only about 40,000 inhabitants. The unemployment rate for years at around 3.43 percent of the people of Prague, which is about 41,000 unemployed.