Portugal or Portuguese (official República Portuguesa ) is a European state in the west of the Iberian Peninsula. In the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean in the east and north of Spain is limited. The Portuguese territory includes the islands of the Azores and Madeira (with Porto Santo). West of the capital Lisbon is Cabo da Roca, the westernmost point of the European mainland.
The name of Portugal derives from the Roman Empire created a warm port of Porto, in Latin Portus Cale. In the Middle Ages, Portus Cale to Portucale later Portugale, although this word in the 7th and 8 Century marked only the northern parts of the country, the region between the rivers Douro and Rio Minho.
Portugal is, at least relative to the established population, linguistically, ethnically and religiously very homogeneous country. The Portuguese language is spoken throughout the country, and only in the villages of Miranda do Douro is one of the Asturian dialect associated (Mirandés) spoken, which is recognized as a minority language.
The densest settlement has a coastal strip from the Spanish border in the north to the area around Lisbon. While living in this strip 70% of the population, the hinterland and the south of Portugal are very sparsely populated. More than 10% of the population accounts for two cities (Lisbon and Oporto), while more than half live in towns under 2,000 inhabitants. The trend in Portugal towards urbanization.