Oxford is the capital of the county of Oxfordshire in England, UK. The town lies on the Thames and Cherwell, 90 km north-west of London, has more than 154,000 inhabitants (2008) and is the seat of the ancient and famous University of Oxford and Oxford Brookes University. Oxford is known as the “city of dreaming spiers”, a term used by Matthew Arnold to the harmonious architecture of the university buildings coined. Unlike the great rival Cambridge, Oxford is also an industrial city.
Oxford first appeared at the time of the Saxons, under the name Oxanforda on. It goes back to the founding of the monastery of a Saxon princess and nun named Frideswide in the 8th Century and was back in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle mentions of 912 was first documented. In the 10th Century Oxford was a very important city in the military struggle between the kingdoms of Mercia and Wessex.
The University of Oxford is the first time in records dating from the 12th Century to find. The first colleges of the university were University College (1249), Balliol College (1263) and Merton College (1264). The Christchurch Cathedral is a college chapel and cathedral. Originally, the main church of St. Frideswide was expanded and the building as a chapel in the structure of the Christchurch College incorporated. His dual role both as a chapel for the college as well as the cathedral of the Diocese of Oxford, it has since 1546th This partnership was frequently very difficult and many students were at the St. Scholastica Day Riot killed by 1355th.
Since 1790, joins the Oxford Canal, the city of Coventry and the industrial area of Birmingham. For a short time the Oxford Canal was one of the most important and most profitable routes in England, the Oxford Canal Company, the bulk of trade between London and the Midlands unraveled. Were transported with so-called Narrowboats products, especially coal, stone and agricultural. With the commissioning of the channel price of coal fell in Oxford in a very short time to one-eighth.
In the 1840s, introduced the Great Western Railway and the London and North Western Railway a railway connection to London ago. In the 19th Century pushed the controversy over the Oxford Movement in the Anglican Church in the city, the sight of the population. The Town Hall of Oxford was of Queen Victoria erected. Although Oxford has since 1542 the status of a city has, the Town Hall will continue to Town Hall called.