The Niagara Falls are waterfalls of the Niagara River on the border between the U.S. state of New York and the Canadian province of Ontario . The word Niagara is in the indigenous language of the natives “thundering water”. Niagara Falls is also the name of the sister cities of Niagara Falls, New York and Niagara Falls, Ontario , located in the center of the cases.
Of the Lake Erie with Lake Ontario, connecting the Niagara River, which is also the eastern boundary of the Niagara Peninsula is collapsed, 58 meters in depth. Here, the cases through the upstairs Goat Island Iceland (Goat Island) are split into two parts. The U.S. portion has an edge length of 363 m, the Canadian one of 792 m. The waters of the U.S. portion falls after 21 m on a crash dump , which was formed after a landslide 1954th The Canadian section (Horseshoe, German horseshoes ) has a free fall height of 52 m.
The water flow is, depending on the season, 2832-5720 m / s, an average of 4200 m / s (about twice that of the Rhine -runoff) to say where is that, depending on time of day, only about a quarter to half of the total mass of water the cases fall down. Thus, the waterfalls are at night, choked off season as well as less frequently used by tourists to up to 10% of the original amount of water diverted and the remaining 90% over a weir to generate electricity. To season the falls are literally turned on every morning at your fingertips. Ships avoid the cases by the 12 km to the west lie, 43.4 km long Welland Canal at St. Catharines , the larger neighboring city of Niagara Falls.
12,000 years ago at the end of the last Ice Age, the last great glaciers melted in the area and brought Lake Erie’s back. The meltwater formed the Niagara River, which extends over the rocks of the Niagara Escarpment flowed into Lake Ontario.
The escarpment in this case has a geological feature: under the hard dolomite rock surface is soft shale . The water masses at the foot of the falls eroded this soft shale, up to the overhang of hard dolomite and no longer holds in the river bed collapsed.
Since this is approximately 1.8 meters per year, the cases have approached since their formation in this way already over eleven kilometers, the Lake Erie.By partial diversion of the river a few miles distant hydroelectric plants down the rushing water will be reduced so that the visitors come in the full enjoyment of the cases. By the abstraction of water for power plants, the force has reduced the cases and thus drastically slowing the erosion of a few centimeters per year.
On the night of the 29th Niagara Falls in March 1848 fell temporarily dry. A storm had brought the ice on Lake Erie in motion, the outlet of the river at Buffalowas blocked almost thirty hours before they were again in motion, and the river flowing again. Many people in the surrounding towns went to the dry river course. Since they found no explanation for the sudden disappearance of Niagara Falls, suspected some supernatural cause, resulting in increased inflow into the churches.
In June 1969, the U.S. portion was drained for five months and subjected to a geological survey. In this period concrete was pushed into the rock in order to halt the erosion. The idea to eliminate the fall of 1954 resulting heap was abandoned for cost reasons.
Rides through the numerous waterfalls have been previously attempted. Some people threw themselves into padded, for example, tons or boats down the falls. The first documented case dates back to 1829, every second attempt ends in death. The first successful driving succeeded on 24 October 1901 the 63-year-old teacher Annie Taylor in a wooden barrel. Driving tests are a crime and be punished since the 1980s, with relatively high fines or jail. Because the U.S. Niagara Falls have a lower flow and a large fall since 1954 crash dump, is not known that any man ever walked down that part of the time and survived.
On 9 July 1960 was above the Canadian cases of the then seven year-old Roger Woodward on board a motor boat capsized and fell down the falls. He was wearing a life jacket and was of the crew of the excursion boat “Maid of the Mist II”, which happened to be nearby, was saved. Except for a slight concussion, for which he was treated for three days in the local hospital, he remained unhurt. His sister Deanne was drawn by two passers-by a few yards above the falls of the flow of the Niagara River. James Honeycutt from Niagara Falls (New York) , a family friend who had taken the siblings fell on the boat ride down the falls and died, his body was found four days later.
Kirk Jones of Canton (Michigan) is the first known man, who survived a fall at Niagara Falls without any aids. He threw himself on 20 October 2003 the Horseshoe Fall down and survived with two broken ribs, bruises and abrasions. In the hospital he was admitted temporarily from Niagara to the psychiatric department, claiming there’s action in suicide intent to have planned. Members disagreed with this statement and testified, was Jones’ goal was, to be known and to find work. Subsequent statements by Jones suggests that he had taken both ways as a result in sales.
Since the 18 Century, the water power used of cases; from 1759, first as a drive for water mills , then in 1853 to produce electrical energy. For this will redirect a portion of the amount of water via a channel to the power plant. From 1881 the plant produced enough energy to illuminate both the waterfall and the corresponding location. Of the George Westinghouse Niagara Falls power plant developed one of the first and largest power plants in the world who worked with alternating current.
Today there are several power plants in those cases, the largest being the Sir Adam Beck power station, No. 1 and No. 2 on the Canadian side and theRobert Moses Niagara Power Plant and the Lewiston- pumped storage power plant on the U.S. side. The installed electric power potential of these plants is in total about 4.4 gigawatts , but this can be achieved not real close, because the cases provide even at high tide only an output of about 2.5 GW of water flow.Yet it is this group to the largest hydroelectric power plants on earth .
To the natural spectacle of the falls for visitors not to diminish very, signed the United States and Canada in 1950 a treaty set in which it was that may be diverted during the tourist season the average daily maximum of 50% of the total amount of water to power plants. Outside the season, the proportion rises to about 75%.