Newcastle upon Tyne is a city and metropolitan borough in the north-east of England on the River Tyne in the county of Tyne and Wear. The neighboring community on the other side of the river is Gateshead. At the point where today the city is built, was formerly Aelii Pons, one of the Roman forts along Hadrian’s wall. After the 12th Century, when a Norman castle was built by about 1080, became the town became an important cultural and economic center. Coal and wool fabrics were already in the 13th Century exported from Newcastle after 16 Century, coal was the main export item. (Bringing coals to Newcastle) Therefore, the phrase “Carry Coals to Newcastle”, which has the same meaning as in English, carrying coals to Newcastle in German, that is: do something completely superfluous and nonsensical.
Until the beginning of the 20th Century was also the ship is an important industry. The first factory for the construction of steam locomotives at all, founded by Robert Stephenson, was in Newcastle. Before 1974, Newcastle upon Tyne headquarters of the county of Northumberland. Newcastle upon Tyne is a major industry – and transportation center. Among the industrial goods produced in the city include, among others, machinery, pharmaceuticals, and the famous malty dark beer Newcastle Brown Ale.
In recent years the city has increasingly sought to accomplish the transformation of a once thriving industrial region (particularly steel and defense industries) to a cosmopolitan metropolis. Culturally, Newcastle are on the rise, old factories converted into museums and theaters. In particular, Newcastle also has a lot to offer in nightlife. Several clubs and bars in the city and have right on the Tyne become veritable magnet for young people. Hence the high school site is in both British and foreign students with extremely popular. The two universities, particularly the Newcastle University, have earned an international reputation.