Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (Afrikaans: Republiek van Namibia, German: Republic of Namibia), is a country in southern Africa, whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Angola and Zambia to the north, Botswana to the east and South Africa in the south and east. It gained independence from South Africa, 21st March 1990, following the Namibian War of Independence. The capital and largest city is Windhoek. Namibia is a member of the United Nations (UN), the Southern African Development Community (SADC), African Union (AU) and the Commonwealth of Nations.
The arid lands of Namibia were inhabited since ancient times by Bushmen, Damara and Namaqua, and since about the 14th Century AD by Bantu migration that came with the Bantu expansion. He became a German protectorate of Imperial in 1884 and remained a German colony until the end of World War I. In 1920 the League of Nations mandate in the country for South Africa, which has imposed its laws, and, from 1948, its policy of apartheid.
Uprisings and demands of African leaders, the UN-led to take direct responsibility for the area. He recognized the organization of people of South West Africa (SWAPO) as the official representative of the Namibian population in 1973. Namibia, however, remained under South African administration during this period. After internal violence, South Africa installed an interim administration in Namibia in 1985. Namibia won its independence from South Africa in 1990, with the exception of Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands, which remained under the control of South Africa until 1994.
Namibia has a population of 2.1 million people and a stable multi-party parliamentary democracy. Agriculture, animal husbandry, tourism and mining, including the promotion of diamonds, gemstones, uranium, gold, silver and base metals – are the backbone of the economy of Namibia. Given the presence of the arid Namib desert, it is one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world. About half the population lives below the international poverty line, and the nation suffer severely from the impact of HIV / AIDS, infects 15% of the adult population living with HIV in 2007.
Tourism is a major contribution (14.5%) to GDP of Namibia, the creation of tens of thousands of jobs (18.2% of all jobs), directly or indirectly, and maintenance over a million tourists per year. The country is among the top destinations in Africa and for ecotourism, the extensive wildlife of Namibia has announced.
There are many lodges and reserves to accommodate eco-tourists. Sport hunting is an important and growing part of the Namibian economy, representing 14% of total tourism in 2000, or $ 19.6 million, with many species of Namibia boast tried by international sport hunters. In addition, extreme sports such as sandboarding and 4x4ing popular, and many cities have companies who offer tours. The most visited places include the Caprivi Strip, Fish River Canyon, Sossusvlei, the Skeleton Coast Park, Sesriem, Etosha Pan and the coastal towns of Swakopmund, Walvis Bay and Luderitz.