The Mount Everest is 8848 meters above sea level the highest mountain in the world . He is one of 14 eight-thousand and as the highest summit of Asia one of the Seven Summits . The mountain was created along with the rest of the Himalayan Mountains as a result of the collision of India with the Eurasian plate . He is named after the British surveyor Sir George Everest named. In Nepali it is called Sagarmatha , on Tibetan Qomolangma (German pronunciation “Tschomolangma”; English transliteration “Chomolungma”).
The Mount Everest is located in Mahalangur Himal region in the Khumbu in Nepal on the border with China ( Tibet Autonomous Region ), the western and south-east of its three summit ridge forming the boundary. On the Nepalese side, he is part of the Sagarmatha National Park , to the UNESCO world heritage belongs. On the north side he belongs to the “Qomolangma National Nature Reserve” , with that recorded in the UNESCO designated Qomoalangma Biosphere Reserve corresponds. Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay succeeded on 29 May 1953, the first ascent of the “third pole”. On 8 Climbed in May 1978 , Reinhold Messner and Peter Habeler the first summit without supplemental oxygen.
Mount Everest is how the entire Himalayas , while the alpidic orogeny created. The convergence of the Indian plate and Eurasian plate led to the closure of the Tethys at the beginning about 50 million years ago in the Eocene and in consequence to the collision of continents, Asia and India. The much smaller Indian plate pushes still at a rate of about three centimeters per year in Eurasia. Mount Everest is growing due to the thickening associated with the collision of continental crust still, however, only a few millimeters per year. The continued elevation is determined by isostatic movements caused, arising from the difference in density of the stacked crust in the area of the mountains and the (dense) asthenosphere follows. The crustal block will then issue a buoyant like a cork in the water.
Due to the high confining pressure and high temperatures during immersion in the upper mantle of the original crustal rocks were metamorphosed converted. In the Everest massif is the lowest unit of the summit pyramid (above 5400 meters) mainly of metamorphic rocks , especially dark, biotite-rich gneisses .
The border with the overlying granites is by pegmatite transitions relatively clearly marked. The so-called “Nuptse granite” (named after the neighboring mountain Nuptse ) is a lighter granite, in addition to quartz and feldspar mainly muscovite , biotite and tourmaline contains. He weathered typically to large blocks. At over 7500 meters above coined metamorphic sedimentary rocks . These fossil-rich micrite limestones to shales contain trilobites , ostracods , and crinoids and feather stars ( Crinoidenkalk ). You have a bright yellow color and are called “Yellow Ribbon” designated. They were at the mountain-building on the crystalline gneisses and granites from base pushed over and fall to the southwest. Therefore, the rocks on the south side of Everest can be found below on the north side. The highest summit pyramid of Everest consists of gray limestone with deposits of sand and rubble that only a small degree of metamorphism was defeated.