Moscow is the capital of the Russian Federation, and with about 11.55 million inhabitants (2011), the largest city or 15.1 million (2012) is the largest agglomeration in Europe. It is the political, economic and cultural center with universities and colleges as well as numerous churches, theaters, museums, galleries and the 540 meter high Ostankino tower. Moscow is the seat of the Russian Orthodox Church and the Grand Duchy in the Danilov Monastery, the largest Russian Orthodox church building is the Moscow Christ the Savior Cathedral. It is in the city of Moscow, over 600 churches. Since the 16th Century Moscow as Third Rome called. After the Second World War, Moscow received the award of a “Hero City”.
The Kremlin and Red Square in central Moscow since 1990 are on the UNESCO list of world cultural heritage. With eight remote stations, three international airports and three inland ports, the city’s most important transport hub and the largest industrial city in Russia.
Moscow is located in the European part of Russia, on average, 156 meters above sea level in the hill country between the Oka and Volga , and partly to the steep banks of the eponymous Moscow River , a tributary of the Oka, which in turn flows into the Volga. The Moscow River traverses the city in meanders from northwest to southeast over a distance of about 80 kilometers. In Moscow, the width of the river 120-200 yards. Approximately 120 small rivers flow to the Moscow River. With the exception of 14, they were all moved into underground piping systems. The 1937 completed, 128-kilometer Moscow-Volga Canal , which branches off to the west of the city towards the north, provides the connection of the river navigable for Iwankowoer reservoir or the Volga.
One of the legends of which announces that the Prince Yury Dolgoruky (1090-1157) in the Land of Vjatitshes city ordered a wooden building, and that this city was named after the river on whose banks they grew up. The first written mention of Moscow dates from 1147, which is why as the founding year of Moscow. But long before that it was at the point where Moscow now stands, human settlements. Archaeological excavations show that the oldest of them were created about 5000 years ago.
To 1156 was the first, nor the wooden weir Kremlin , in the protection of the market town gradually developed into a substantial settlement. In 1238, the city of the Mongols conquered and been burned. 1263, in the surrounding area became a part of the principality of Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy , a little later under Prince Daniel an independent principality . In the first half of the 14th Century – the city had 30,000 residents now – saw the Tatar Grand Khan of the Moscow grand dukes as (but it tributary) Head of Russia.
The victory over the Tatars in the Battle of Kulikovo on 8 September 1380, led by the Moscow Grand Prince Dmitry Donskoy freed, not from the hegemony of the Golden Horde (1382, Moscow became even once burned and looted), but the city strengthened by its political and military prestige considerably and won, therefore, resistant to economic power. 1480 she was the Tartar rule finally shake off and became the capital of the Russian Empire.
The reigning Grand Duke of Moscow since 1462 Ivan III. , the Great (1440-1505) married, 1472, the Byzantine Princess Sofia (Zoe) Palaeologus, niece of the last Byzantine emperor Constantine XI. Palaeologus , and took from there the idea of autocratic state and its symbols: the double-headed eagle and the court ceremonial. Since then, Moscow is considered the ” Third Rome “and guardian of orthodoxy .