Lucca is an Italian city with 84 939 inhabitants (as of 31 December 2010) in Tuscany, capital of the province of Lucca. It lies in the valley of the river Serchio about 20 km northeast of Pisa and 20 km east of the Tuscan coast. In the 13th and 14 Century Lucca was one of the most influential European cities. Great importance was particularly the textile industry. The large squares, Romanesque churches and medieval towers still bear witness to the former importance of this city. Their pierced by four gates, fortifications were begun in 1504 and completed in 1645 and were long the most notable in Italy. They are still well preserved and carry a tree-lined promenade.
The ancient Etruscan Lucca, the valley of the Serchio is mastered, the first mention of the historian Livy as the place where in 218 BC, Sempronius before Hannibal withdrew, and there are doubts about the correctness of Livy’s statement, because even though it continually wars with the Ligurians were, Lucca is only 180 BC called again. At that time, Lucca was the same time as Pisa (also 180) and Luna (177) as a Roman colony founded in the reign of the previously in this space-based Apuan take to break once you and the country for Rome in possession. The Lex Julia of 90 BC, it must be a municipium be made, and here was Julius Caesar, 56 BC, his famous meeting with Pompey and Crassus. At this point, Lucca was still part of Liguria, not to Etruria. A little later, here performed by the triumvirate by Octavian or a colony, whether to Philippi or Actium is unclear.
In the Augustan division of Italy Lucca was the seventh region (Etruria) assigned. From the period of the Empire, little is known except that there is a junction of roads to Florentia (see Via Clodia), Luna and Pisae was. Although there by Odoacer sacked and robbed of part of its territory was, Lucca appears at the time of Narses, who besieged it for three months, 553, an important town and fortress. Among the Lombards of Lucca was the residence of a duke or marquis, and had the coinage. The Dukes extended their power gradually to the whole Tuscany, but after the death of the famous Matilda, the city began to constitute itself as an independent municipality. 1160 she was awarded the Bavarian Duke and Tuscan Marquis Welf VI. in return for an annual tribute to the domination of a territory around the city. The wealth and influence of the city of Lucca in the 13th Century, based in large part on its textile industry. Lucca was famous among other things, for its silk was, in Europe, whose colors are unsurpassed.
Internal dissension was Uguccione della Faggiola, with Dante, some time spent there, the opportunity to make 1314 the Lord of Lucca, but the Lucchesi him two years violated later and surrendered the city to Castruccio Castracane, under whose skilful tyranny for a short time – until his death in 1328 (his grave is located in the church of San Francesco) – was the leading city of Italy. The political unrest in the early 14th Century, however, led to many of Luccaer dyers and silk weavers to Venice fled. The city of Venice offered the generous asylum to refugees Luccaer and financial assistance, but under the condition that they practiced their trade in Venice. The guild laws Luccaer saw this before the death of all citizens who practiced her craft textile outside the city walls. Given their financial situation adequately took Luccaer craftsmen at the Venetian conditions.
Of the troops of Louis of Bavaria occupied the rich Genoese Gheradino Spinola sold by the Bohemian King John occupied on the Rossi from Parma pledged, of which ceded to Martino della Scala of Verona, the Florentine, sold to the Pisan passed nominally freed by Emperor Charles IV and governed by his vicar, Lucca managed, since 1369 first as a democracy after 1628 as patrician, aristocratic oligarchy, its independence as a city state in addition to Venice and Genoa to say. Until the French Revolution, it wrote the word Libertas on its banner. The political turmoil of the 13th and 14 Century were also discussed by Dante in his work as lead Leeck (2007) made on the basis of case studies Interminelli Alessio, Bonturo Dati and Bonagiunta.