London is the capital of England and the United Kingdom . The town lies on the River Thames in southeast England on the island of Great Britain . The current administrative area of the districts created on 1 April 1965 with the creation of Greater London (Greater London). In the administrative area of Greater London has 7.8252 million people (2010), of which 2.9729 million in the 13 boroughs of inner London . London is the most populous city in the European Union . The agglomeration has 8,278,251 inhabitants (2001). In the metropolitan area lived in 2001 about 14 million people.
London is one of the most important cultural, financial and trade centers of the world ( world city ). In the city there are numerous universities, colleges, theaters and museums. The metropolitan area of Greater London is divided into Inner and Outer London, is divided into 33 districts (“London boroughs”), including the City of London and the City of Westminster.
London extends approximately 44.3 miles along the navigable river Thames and is an average of 15 meters above sea level . London arose from a settlement on the northern shore of the present City of London . The London Bridge was until 1739 the only bridge across the river. For this reason, there is the larger part of the city north of the river. With the construction of other bridges in the 18th Century and the construction of railways in the 19th Century, the city began to expand in all directions. The landscape is flat to slightly wavy, allowing the unhindered growth was favored.
The Thames was in ancient times much wider and shallower than today. Today it is almost entirely limited by dams and most tributaries flow underground. The tides of the North Sea make themselves more clearly felt in London, the city is therefore due to flooding and storm surge risk. At Woolwich – East of Greenwich park – was in the 1970s, the Thames Barrier built to reduce that risk. The geographical coordinates of the center near the Trafalgar Square are 51 ° 30 ‘north latitude and 0 ° 8′ west longitude. By the Royal Observatory , the Royal Greenwich Observatory in Greenwich, was the prime meridian set. It is the starting point of longitude , and thus the time zones.