The Leaning Tower of Pisa (in Italian Torre pendente di Pisa) is the most famous building in the world tilted and landmarks of the city of Pisa in Italy. The tower was to be free-standing bell tower (Campanile) for the cathedral in Pisa planned. Twelve years after the groundbreaking ceremony on 9 August 1173, when the building at the 3rd Level was reached, the tower began to die because of a fundamental break in the southeast tend to. Then the building was interrupted for about 100 years. The next four floors were built then diagonally, to compensate for the imbalance. After the building had to be interrupted again, to 1372, the belfry was finished.
The tilt of the tower rests on the ground with clay mud and sand, which deforms under the weight. According to recent excavations, he stands at the edge of a former island right next to an antique, for the construction already silted harbor. The difficulties of the tower is 3.97 degrees. According to legend, a native of Pisa has Galileo Galilei in experiments on the tower, the case law discovered. In 1987 the ensemble of the tower, which was adjacent cathedral, the baptistery and cemetery of the UNESCO for World Heritage site declared.
The 55 meters high and 12 meters in diameter Campanile consists of 14,200 tonnes white Carrara marble were allowed and has seven bells that ring but not a long time because of the danger of collapse. He should be the highlight of the whole system of the Piazza dei Miracoli. It differs from the usual square towers of central Italy and is a great contrast to the pointed towers of northern Europe. It rests on a foundation of 700 m³ spiral stone and mortar, in 100 meters would be builders Bonanno let the bells ring. The boundary wall around this area is 3.57 meters thick. Near the entrance are carved month and year of start of construction: August 1173rd In documents, however, always called in 1174, because the Pisans began after damaligem calendar the new year on 25 Of March.
The Campanile was – except that he should wear the bells – yet another function. At that time the clergy of external danger fled into the tower. Wall openings and projections in the cylinder shaft made it possible to collect as needed on each floor beams and floors. Each floor has a door out onto the colonnade, each of which consists of 30 columns. On the south side lead up six steps above the belfry on the north side only four. The stairs to the upper observation deck to Brunelleschi have inspired a similar stairway to the lantern on the cupola of the Duomo in Florence to build.
Of 7 January 1990 had 14,500 tons of heavy tower will be closed to visitors because the slope was too dangerous. There was a worldwide call for a structural engineer to develop the best solutions to stabilize and submit. After 13 years of rehabilitation measures, where the tower was again raised by 44 inches, he has since December 2001, reopened for tourists. Groups of visitors can climb the tower every hour and half hour in groups of up to 40 visitors for a period of 30 minutes.