Great Smoky Mountains National Park is located in the Appalachian Mountains in the area of the U.S. states of North Carolina and Tennessee . He was born on 15 Established in June 1934 and is now part of world heritage . The forest , which covers the park, is one of the oldest forests on earth and is the largest forest area in the eastern United States.
The National Park is between eight and ten million visitors, the most visited national park in the United States, but the traffic is limited to the major roads. The 450 kilometer road off the main roads and the 1,400 miles of trails in the park are relatively less crowded.
Before the arrival of European settlers in the late 18th Century the area was part of the home of the Cherokee Indians, who gave the landscape because of the frequent fog the name “Shalonage”, “place of blue mist.” By the year 1830 by President Andrew Jackson signed Indian Removal Act, a majority of Indians living there were relocated to other federal territories. The expulsion was under the English phrase “Trail of Tears” ( Trail of Tears ) is known. Some of the Cherokees remained in this region and became the renegade warrior Tsali out. They hid in the region of present-day Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Their descendants still live in the Indian reservation Qualla in the south of the park.
When the white settlers settled, developed in the area a thriving timber industry. Wood was a prized commodity in the late 19th and Century, this railway line Little River Railroad , which was to transport the goods of great importance, which helped the country to prosperity and wealth. To the vast clear-cutting of forests to a halt, joined together in the sequence locals and to raise funds for the preservation of woodland areas. The National Park Service supported the desire to establish a National Parks and the U.S. Congress in 1926 approved the project. After additional donors were found to buy the land, could be started with the closure of farms and the eviction of the settlers. The official opening of the park was held on 15 June 1934. In 1983 the park was developed by the UNESCO for World Heritage- nominated.
The Great Smoky Mountains are among the oldest mountains in the world. The glacier , which extended into North America during the ice ages ranged at its maximum expansion to the borders of the park. They formed in a boundary between southern and northern flora. The heights in the park range from 250 to about 2000 meters above sea level . Due to the strong fluctuations in the amount of vegetation in the park includes much of the biodiversity of the eastern United States.
Five different types of forests with more than 130 different tree and plant species dominate with 4000, the Great Smoky Mountains. They represent all the major forest types of the eastern part of North America. In the high altitudes over 1500 meters dominates the pine – and fir forest . At an average altitude of 1000-1500 meters, is mainly deciduous forest Nordic encountered. A pine – and oak forest grows in the dry areas of the park. Along the river beds with wood strips are hemlock (hemlock) to meet the low-lying valleys and passes through a dense hardwood forest with linden , maple , horse chestnut and birch.
The animal population of the park is very diverse, there are more than 60 different mammalian species, including about 1,800 copies of the symbolic animal of the Smoky Mountains, the Black Bears as well, for example, white-tailed deer , marmots , chipmunks , gray squirrels and many species of bats . The red wolf , an endangered species which is closely related to the actual wolf, also lives in the more northern areas of the park. The park is home to 240 bird species, 59 fish species and about 80 reptiles – and amphibians . Among them are more than 30 different salamander , are therefore also called the Smoky Mountains “Salamander Capital of the World.”