Egypt – Egypt (Arabic: مصر Misr / Masr; full name: Arab Republic of Egypt . arab, جمهورية مصر العربية Gumhūrīyat Misr al-ʿ Arabiyya) lies in the extreme north-east Africa . It is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea, east of Gaza Strip ( Palestine ), from Israel and the Red Sea in the south of Sudan and to the west of Libya is limited.
Valley of the Nile
-Lower Egypt , including the Nile Delta , Cairo and the Memphite necropolis , located in northern Egypt. It is the most populous region of the country, the Nile Delta is the most significant landwirtschaflich region. The pyramids of Giza as part of the Memphite necropolis are the most important landmark in Egypt.
-Middle Egypt is the region between Beni Suef and Sohag .
-Upper Egypt is the area between Qena and Aswan .
Thebes and The Thebaid, with its important archaeological sites is part of Upper Egypt.
-The Nasser / Aswan High Dam is part of under-or north- Nubia . Extends across the southern border of Egypt to the Sudan . The most significant archaeological site is Abu Simbel , with its two temples.
-The Libyan Desert is located west of the Nile Valley and is home to the oases of Siwa , Bahriya , Farafra , Dakhla-ed and el-Kharga . The outstanding natural and archaeological areas include the Gilf Kebir .
-The Wādī to-Natrun (Scete) is located west of the highway from Cairo to Alexandria on the eastern edge of the Libyan desert. It is famous for its Coptic monasteries.
-The oasis of Faiyum is located southwest of Beni Suef on the eastern edge of the Libyan desert.
-Nubia is the desert on both sides of the Nile south of Aswan , up in the Sudan rich. The Egyptian portion is known as Nubia. The Lake Nasser is part of Nubia.
-The Arabian Desert is located east of the Nile Valley.
Coasts and Channels
-Mediterranean coast .
-The Suez Canal zone is located between the Egyptian mainland and the peninsula of Sinai .
-Peninsula Sinai (including the seaside resorts of Dahab and Sharm el-Sheikh ).
-Coast of the Red Sea (including the seaside resorts of El Gouna , Hurghada , Makadi Bay , Sharm en-Naqa , Safaga , El-Quseir and Marsa Alam ).
Stay in the seaside resorts on the Red Sea and Mount Sinai (in particular, Hurghada and Sharm el-Sheikh ) consider many tourists as comfortable as they are here to move much more freely. In addition, there is a wide selection of bars, restaurants and nightclubs for the tourists.
-Cairo (al-Qahira). Capital of Egypt with Islamic and Coptic monuments, important, important museums (Egyptian Museum, Islamic Museum Coptic Museum). In the west and southwest there are the important pharaonic sites of Giza , Memphis , Dahshur , Saqqara and Abusir ( Memphite necropolis ).
-Alexandria . Second largest city in Egypt with Mediterranean Sea port. Capital of ancient Egypt in Greco-Roman times.
-Al-Minya . City in central Egypt. Significant sites in the area are Beni Hasan and Tell el-Amarna .
-Asyut . City in central Egypt. Significant sites in the area are Meir and Deir el-Muharraq .
-Sohag . City in central Egypt. Major sites are the Red and White Monastery west of the city.
-Hurghada . City on the Red Sea. Bathing and Tauchsportort.
-Luxor . Site of major temple complexes of Luxor and Karnak . Located on the west bank of Thebes-West one of the most important necropolis of Pharaonic Egypt with the Kings , the Valley of the Queens , and many private tombs.
-Esna . Of importance is the Temple of Khnum.
-Edfu . Of importance is the Temple of Horus.
-Kom Ombo . Of importance is the dual temple of Sobek and Haroeris.
-Aswan (Aswān). City in the north of the Aswan Dam. Important Pharaonic sites in the city itself ( quarries , Elephantine , Qubbet al-Hawa ) and near ( Kalabsha , Philae ). Major Fatimid necropolis. Nubian Museum.
-Port Said . City on the Mediterranean coast at the base of the Suez Canal .
Visa and passport / ID card
For the entry in each case, a visa is required. This will German, Austrian and Swiss citizen the most straightforward for a stay of up to 4 weeks at the airport. It costs U.S. $ 15 per person (January 2011) and is available at one of the bank counter before passport control. In the Egyptian embassy or consulate general in Germany in the cost of a visa 25 €. For entry you need a passport . Since February 2002, a personal identity card accepted as a document. In all cases, the documents must be valid three months beyond the planned departure. At the entry and exit, you must complete a one-or departure card. If you use the ID card to enter, you will need a passport photo that is glued to a specific entry and exit card. children under 16 years traveling in with a child’s passport, a child ID with a photo or using the entries in the identity card to Egypt.
If you are near the border with Libya (eg safari through desert to Siwa stop), you will need for the permits more passport photos. It is advisable to prepare sufficient copies of travel documents. Israeli entry stamp will not be considered as grounds for refusing entry. On the other hand, can lead an Egyptian visa for a country of immigration to Israel to refuse entry into the neighboring Arab countries. Please contact the foreign offices of both countries! Easier and safer it is to get to travel to / from Isreal a second passport. Issuing of visas and entries into countries of the Arab League are then easily. If you have Taba from Israel coming from , you will receive at the border crossing not a full visa, but only a 14 day visa valid Sinai. Do you want to continue traveling on the Egyptian mainland, you have the full visa in their home country or the Egyptian consulate in Eilat buy (U.S. $ 15).
While the visa is valid indefinitely, you will usually only a four-week residency . This permit may be at the Paßstellen in the larger towns such as Cairo , Luxor and Hurghada can extend that are open on Sundays to Thursdays from 09:00 am to 14:00 clock. You need a valid passport, copies of the pages with the visa and your personal information. The formalities take several hours to complete. The renewal of residence permit costs the order of LE 11 per month. Note : Please note that the current entry requirements can be checked with the relevant embassies.
The journey is via the airports of Cairo (CAI) Luxor (LXR), Sharm el Sheikh (SSH), Hurghada (HRG) and Marsa Alam (RMF). It is conceivable in the future that are more equipped resorts with direct flight options (charter flights). Of these airports can also use the airports in Cairo, Luxor and Aswan are achieved. Detailed information about the arrival in Cairo are on the side of Cairo to find.
From Cairo and Aswan are also more accessible regional airports, such as Alexandria , Asyut , El-Kharga with EgyptAir .
Are train connections to foreign countries does not exist.
There are several bus services to neighboring countries from Cairo (eg, Jordan , Israel , Jerusalem and Tel Aviv), which will probably be for the European package travelers of less interest.
Car, Motorcycle, Caravan
Entry by car, motorbike or caravan is difficult because you have to worry about after the entry (in time) consuming import formalities. Travelers report that an entry is easier if you from the western neighbor Libya coming from. This is needed but also the extremely expensive transit visa for this country. An entering or leaving the land to Sudan is not currently possible. You can accomplish this only by a ferry. Upon entry, you must have a valid customs document for Egypt ( carnet de passage present), which is used as a guarantee of customs clearance has not accomplished.
After many years it was no route by sea to Egypt, since 2009, runs once a week a ferry to the Italian Line Visemar of Venice (Italy) via Tartous (Syria) to Alexandria. As of 2011, possibly a second weekly departure is scheduled. From Aswan from there is a ferry to Wadi Halfa on the east bank of the Aswan High Dam in the Sudan . It is currently the only connection to the Sudan by land or by water. The ferry runs once a week, it starts in Aswan on Mondays and Wednesdays to Sudan at Wadi Halfa in the direction of Egypt, the crossing takes about 20 hours.
When the ferry is a passenger ferry, bicycles and motorbikes can be taken. Larger vehicles will be taken on a pontoon attached or a separate cargo ship. The cost of a pontoon type are high, they are $ 1600 for the entire pontoon, on which up to four vehicles have space. The customs formalities are complicated and can take several days to complete. After the arrival in the Sudan must be within three days in Khartoum and Wadi Halfa to register and pay a registration fee and customs. The same is true for the opposite approach: in a multiple-day procedure, you must declare your car, pay insurance fees and the diesel tax, upon entry you need is a valid for Egypt Customs Document ( Carnet de Passage ) submit that as a guarantee that is not fully covered Customs clearance is needed.
In Egypt, Egyptian Arabic is spoken, a dialect of Modern Arabic. Modern Standard Arabic (Arabic Fusha) is mainly used written language and only in very formal situations, speak (religion, television news). The Egyptian dialect is understood here than in other Arab countries also due to the dominance of Arab film. One must, however, so that in remote areas, such as in the Libyan desert, other dialects are spoken. In tourist centers in the hotels and taxi drivers usually speak English and French – to be found, German, Japanese and Russian skills are much less likely – because of the potential business. Away from the tourist areas is almost always assumed that there are no foreign language skills among the locals, most likely still be French. Knowledge of the Egyptian-Arab encounter always found favor and provide experience outside of organized tourism. Egyptians also often use to communicate with foreigners in order to strengthen their language skills.
Egypt is now quite adjusted to the tourists, so you will find on almost every corner in the busy tourist cities such as Cairo, Luxor, Hurghada and Sharm el Sheikh international cuisine. Ranging from the Italians through to the McDonald’s restaurant. Leave it to take but not to try the traditional cuisine in Egypt, because Egypt has to offer a truly exceptional cuisine. The Egyptian cuisine has evolved over the millennia, is tasty, calorie-strong and sometimes difficult. In many restaurants for a delicious vegetarian entrees and side dishes are served with meat dishes. The individual entrees are always kept quite small, but is often the host offers a large selection of small mezze, such as the appetizers are also often called here. The food consists mainly of vegetables and olive oil are due to their unsaturated fatty acids, vitamin E and effective fat impurities very nutritious.
Examples: tahini (sesame paste an oily), hummus (chickpea puree), Baba Ghannug (sesame sauce with eggplant), falafel (also called Tamea – fried balls of Kichererbsenmus) are the most popular food in Egypt. When meat is mostly lamb, chicken, camel, cow, pig is taboo for Muslims, of course. A popular and well-known dish is meat kofta (minced meat, usually lamb). Among the desserts do not like the Egyptians, mostly sweet, but fruits are too short (apples, bananas, dates, etc.).