The Corcovado National Park is located on the Osa Peninsula in southwest Costa Rica (9 ° N, 83 ° W), and is part of the Osa Conservation Area. It was created on October 24th of 1975 , and covers an area of 45,757 hectares of land and marine 5375ha. It is considered a very important part in the extensive system of national parks and biological reserves of the country. Biological diversity is amazing. National Geographic has called it “the most intense in the world, biologically speaking,” and it is estimated that anywhere in the world (that has a similar extension) harbors a high biodiversity value.
A unique park preserves the largest primary forest American Pacific, along with one of the few remnants of substantial size of tropical rainforest in the world. The cutting is usually carried out at this forest because it is an accessible location containing trees valuable and great. However, these habitats are the richest, biologically speaking. So, even though about half of the tropical rain forests of the earth stood still, what is left of these is often not sufficient to sustain biodiversity original. In particular, animals need a big habitat.
Corcovado however, is large enough to support significant populations of tapir ( Tapirs bairdii ) (also called a tapir), jaguar ( Panthera onca ) and peccaries ( Tayassu peccary ), these species are considered endangered, and contain 140 species of mammals (representing 10% of mammal species on the continent U.S. ).
Costa Rica itself is considered an ideal place for ornithologists and Corcovado contains several hundred species of birds. Recently, the harpy eagle , which was considered extinct in the area since 1989, has been sighted in the park.
The abundance of wildlife can be explained in part by the variety of vegetation, of which there are 13 types, including montane forest (which covers more than half of the park), mangrove , forest, prairie , forest, alluvial plains , forest Marsh and others, which together contain 500 species of trees, as espavel . Another reason for the diversity (which applies to the rest of the country) that is located in a biological corridor forflora and wildlife .
The park is open to the public but must make reservations. This can be done in Puerto Jimenez , on the east coast of the peninsula. Some hotels in the area have private biological reserves within the area of Corcovado. Including one of 36.5 hectares bordering the Corcovado National Park
There are 2 main trails, one running along the coast and one inland, and 4 ranger stations where you can spend the night: 3 in the park entrances, and one where they cross paths. One runs northwest to southeast along the ocean , with the Sirena station about half way, from where the other path towards Los Patos Station, on the eastern edge of the park.
You can fly into the park (arriving at Sirena Station), where paths go under. To walk in the park is recommended acceptable physical condition, have 2 or 3 days (at least), plan trips in advance, and of course caution. Between July and November, some sections of the park are closed to the public due to rain.
Furthermore, it should be noted that in the rivers there are crocodiles , and at high tide there are even sharks that swim into the estuary in search of food.
Most sightings of animals are given on the path to the beach, where you can observe macaws ,hermit crabs , pelicans fishing in the sea, spider monkeys , anteaters , capuchin monkeys (capuchins), woodpecker or coatis.
The high annual rainfall leading to a large number of streams (such as rivers Sirena, Llorona, Molina, Madrigal) and lake areas, encouraging the development of forests with tall trees (the Nazarene, garlic, lead, the kapok and the pylon) in alternation with others almost as guayabón, the male espavel and cedar, all these trees are covered with epiphytes. It develops in this way an ideal habitat for the development and maintenance of 350 species of birds ( parrots , brown pelicans, macaws, ibis, herons, owls, egrets, blue, Pijije, plovers), 150 species of mammals ( jaguars ,pumas , ocelots , tapirs , monkeys, Zain, deer, coatis ), more than 100 species of reptiles ( crocodiles , snakes, lizards) and amphibians (frog glass, poisonous toad) and about 5500 insects.
Support government has declined dramatically, so that the park has grown from 63 rangers in 1999 to about 10 today. These 10 guards must patrol and protect an area of about 560km ². This causes a lack of control that in turn leads to massive poaching. Scientists are alarmed by this situation. Eduardo Carrillo, who has developed long-term studies on jaguars and other felines in the Osa Peninsula , has warned that these animals are in danger of extinction in the region. Apparently illegal hunting peccary (Tayassu peccary) in the national park has led to a critical reduction of these animals, which are the main source of food for jaguars.
The decline in populations of peccaries, jaguars has led to abandon their habitat and natural approach to populated areas in search of easier prey such as goats, cows or dogs. Corcovado Foundation reported a recent case, some people from a neighboring community to the park killed two jaguars, orphaning a puppy that could not possibly survive. Rigidity action is needed to protect the largest jaguar population of the Pacific coast of Central America, the population of jaguars in Corcovado is estimated at 50 copies.
Another threat is deforestation in forest reserve Golfo Dulce . This reserve is a corridor between Corcovado National Park with the Piedras Blancas National Park , ensuring that animals need more space to move along the woods between two parks.
Recently, with the help of organizations like Children’s Rainforest of Austria or The Nature Conservancy , the Corcovado Foundation has been able to hire eight full-time rangers to patrol and protect the area. The number of citations issued to hunters has tripled, challenging those who acted with impunity in the past.
Corcovado has an unusually high level of biodiversity that is not outweighed by any similar sized area on the planet. The area includes 25 to 30 ecosystems that are home to the largest populations of species like the jaguar , the puma , the peccary and tapir in Costa Rica . The park protects an important maritime area (almost 54 km ²), which develops a wide variety of marine life, have been found east of the park there is a breeding area for humpback whales that come from both the northern hemisphere and south.
The park hosts ended very important, including 12 tree species in danger of extinction .