Chisinau is the capital of the Republic of Moldova. The city has an area of 635 sq km and has about 794 800 inhabitants (about 22.5 percent of the total population, as of January 1, 2012), the most populous city in the country.
The etymology of the name Chisinau can be claimed by some historians of the combination of the old Romanian word chişla (water source, today cişmea) and Nouă derived (new) and would thus indicate a groundwater source that was used in the origins of the city as an important supply base. Those water source is now at the crossroads between the roads A. Pushkin and Albişoara.
Among other Romanian historians, as previously Ştefan Ciobanu , the same as for derivation is Chisineu Criş- represented, ie from the Hungarian name Kis-Jeno (in Hungarian: kis “small” + Jeno’s “Eugene” and also name one of the seven altmagyarischen strains with Constantine VII in administrando De imperio : Genach). As the Kuman Empire in the 13th Century has been defeated, the region was under Hungarian hegemony. The Székely built fortifications in the region to the Kingdom of Hungary against other Mongol invasions to protect. These include Miclăuşeni (Hungarian Miklóshely), Orhei (Hungarian Várhely) and Ciubărciu (Ciobruciu) (Hungarian Csupor) near the present capital of Moldova. This makes plausible a Hungarian origin.
The first written mention of Chisinau goes back to the year 1436, as part of the village of Moldavia was. This principality was first in Polish, later under Ottoman suzerainty. A significant development was made, and the town remained until the 19th Century boyars – and monastic settlement virtually unchanged. In 1818 the small town as Kishinev administrative seat of the Ottoman Empire to the Russian Empire in the Treaty of Bucharest in 1812 ceded provinces of Bessarabia. Kishinev enjoyed as a city on the edge of the Russian Empire a bad reputation, but was regarded as a disciplinary transfer camp for discontented and rebellious. The young Russian national poet Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin was of 21 September 1820 to 1823 banned as a translator after Kishinev and wrote about the city: “Oh, Kishinev, O Dark City” , “cursed city Kishinev, the tongue will not tire of insulting you.”