Central African Republic – The Central African Republic is a landlocked country in central Africa . It is bordered (in clockwise from north) to the Chad , the Sudan , the Sudan , the Democratic Republic of Congo , the Republic of Congo and Cameroon . The capital is Bangui.
The country lies mainly on the plateau of the North Equatorial threshold , which has an average altitude of 600 meters above sea level. In the north of the country’s 216,000 km ² are in the Chad Basin . The Bongo Massif at the border with Sudan, rises to a height of 1330 m, in the Yade Massif along the border with Cameroon, the Ngaoui , with 1420 m highest mountain in the country.
The climate is largely that of the humid tropics and the south of the humid tropics. That is, there is a wet and a dry season. In the north, bordering the dry savanna , the rainy season is about four months, while extending south for eight to ten months. In the north it is mainly during the dry season extremely hot, sometimes up to 40 ° C. At night, it cools off in part to less than 10 ° C. In the capital of the seasonal temperature differences are due to its proximity to the tropical rain forest , however small.
The dense tropical rain forest in the south is one of the last refuges for lowland gorillas and forest elephants . This is also the Dzanga-Sangha Reserve , where both species are protected. The largest part of the country but is made of tree savanna ( savanna ) and sparse forest in the north gradually poorer in the tree dry savanna merges. For livestock include elephants, monkeys, antelopes, buffalo, monitor lizards and rare birds and hippos in the water.
With 5.0 children per woman (2008), the Central African Republic has a high birth rate. This is among others due to the fact that only 7% of married women, modern contraceptives are available. 43% of the population are under 15 years old, only 4% of the population older than 65 The life expectancy for women is 44, while for men at 43 years. While the rain forest and dry savannah are almost deserted, the majority of the population settled along the major waterways of the country.
The original population, the Pygmies , now has few members and only lives in the southwestern rain forests. The living than residents of the southern river scenery Bantu peoples of Ngalagruppe also form a minority: they are from the Yakoma with 4% share of the population of the nation’s largest, but there are also G’bakka with another 4%, Lissongo , Bamda and Banziri.
In addition, in the north-sahelo Sudanese people – mostly savannah dwellers, of which the Baya at 33% of the population, the largest ethnic group in the country, in addition to the Banda with 27%. Furthermore, among the peoples of the sahelosudanischen Mandschia with 13%, Sara 10%, the Mboum with 7% and the Ngbandi better represented.
There is also Nilotide – especially Runga – and in the east Azande peoples, in the jungle region also Pygmies. A few thousand Europeans, mostly French citizens live in urban areas.
→ Main article : Languages of the Central African Republic
→ The official languages are Sango (since 1991 ) and French (since independence). In addition, many other indigenous tribal languages spoken, especially Ubangi languages , which include the Sango. Sango also has the status of a national language.
According to the 2003 census are only about 9.6% of the population officially followers of indigenous faiths. Christians make up about 80.3% of the population (mainly distributed on the border with Democratic Republic of Congo), while the Sunni Islam of 10 , 1% of the population practiced (with increasing tendency, especially common in the north, east and northwest).
Since the colonial period, many missionary groups operate in the country, including Lutherans and Catholics , but also Baptists , Grace Brethren and Jehovah’s Witnesses . While these missionaries predominantly of France, the United States , Italy and Spain come, come many missionaries from Nigeria , the Democratic Republic of Congo and other black African countries. Many Western missionaries left the country during the years 2002/2003 because of fighting between rebels and government forces.
The central African Pygmies are known for their drum games and their ritual dances. In the meantime, however, many traditions from the forests of the Central African Republic is no longer present.
The music of the Aka Pygmies is characterized by a multi-part singing, which rhythmically of flutes, harps and handclaps is highlighted. The instruments are mostly made of wood. The one-sided harp of the Aka Pygmies can be played with the mouth. In general, the music of the Pygmies in the Central African Republic is comparable with the twelve-tone music: The first songs are supposedly independent after every twelfth tone to each other again.