Cambridge is the capital of the county of Cambridgeshire, and is situated on the River Cam about 80 km north-east of London in the east of England. Famous are the University of Cambridge, the Gothic chapel and the choir of King’s College, the University Library and the Trinity College. The city has about 120,000 inhabitants, including about 22,500 students (as of 2007).
The first settlements in the area of present-day Cambridge existed before the era of the Roman Empire. The earliest evidence of settlement, a collection of hunting weapons, is from the late Bronze Age (1000 BC). There are other archaeological evidence of settlement in the Castle Hills by a Belgian base in the first century AD. With the Roman invasion of Britain (40 BC), Cambridge was an important military post, to defend the action. In addition, here crossed the Via Devana which Colchester (Essex combined) with the northern garrisons in Chester, the Cam. The Roman name of this settlement is likely Duroliponte been. The settlement remained a regional center for 350 years. To date, many Roman roads and fortifications in the area of Cambridge can be found, as in Great Chesterford.
After the retreat of the Romans, the area around the Castle Hill was the Saxons over whose grave goods were found in this area. During the Anglo-Saxon times Cambridge benefited from good trade links through the settlement area. This allowed safe and easy to trade by the end of difficult preparation Fenland. In the 7th Century travelers reported of nearby Ely, however, by a sharp drop in trade. In Anglo-Saxon chronicles the settlement area is designated as ‘Grantebrycge’, the first indication of a bridge in Cambridge.
In the year 875 was in the Anglo-Saxon chronicles the arrival of the Vikings recorded in Cambridge. The lively trade the Vikings led to a further rapid growth of Cambridge. During this time, the center shifted from Castle Hill on the left bank, and now the Quayside on the right side of the river. After the end of the Viking occupation of the Saxons gained the power briefly in Cambridge and established in 1025 to St. Benet’s Church.
Two years after the conquest of England set up William of Normandy a castle on Castle Hill. Like the rest of the new kingdom was under the control of the Cambridge King and his deputy. The distinctive ‘Round Church’ in the city center was built during this period. In the age of the Normans, the name changed to ‘Grentabrige’ or ‘Cantebrigge’, the name of the river was ‘Granta’. The city’s name changed in the time to continue to this ‘Cambridge’, while the river was also known as the Granta. Even today, the cam is sometimes referred to as the Granta. The University of Cambridge frequently uses the pseudo-Latin adjective ‘Cantabrigiensis’ (coming from Cambridge), but this is obviously an inverse transformation from the English town names. During the Second World War were in the course of the Battle of Britain fly several light and heavy attacks on the city. The bombing of the German Luftwaffe destroyed from 1940 to 1941 7% of the building.