Borobudur (Borobudur too) is one of the largest Buddhist temples in Southeast Asia . The colossal pyramid is located 40 kilometers northwest of Yogyakarta on the island of Java in Indonesia . Borobudur in 1991 by the UNESCO as a World Heritage Site recognized. It was built the stupa probably 750-850 during the reign of the Sailendra dynasty. As the center of power of Java in the 10th and 11 Century shifted to the east (perhaps in conjunction with the eruption of Mount Merapi 1006), the system fell into disuse and was buried by volcanic ash and rampant vegetation. 1814 she was rediscovered only in 1835 but brought Europeans to light. A restoration program in the period between 1973 and 1984, large parts of the system back to its former glory.
A total of nine floors are piled up on the square base of 123 m length. On the walls of the four gradually tapering like galleries are bas-reliefs in the total length of over five kilometers, which the life and work of the Buddha describe. In three of them are concentric tapering terraces with a total of 72 stupas, framing the stupa of almost 11 m in diameter.
Location and surroundings
The Borobudur was built on a small hill in the Kedu Basin, a rich fertile valley that is surrounded by mountains. In the south and southwest of the Menoreh Mountains to the north and northeast of the volcano Merapi and Merbabu and in the northwest of the volcano and Sumbing Sindoro. The temple also lies at the confluence of two rivers, the Elo and the Progo. These rivers are in the faith, symbols of the two rivers Ganges and Yamuna to represent that the Indus Valley in India to supply.
About the name Borobudur
The meaning of the name ‘Borobudur’ remains unclear. The name is a combination of the words ‘Bara’ and ‘Budur’. ‘Bara’ is derived from the word ‘ Vihara ‘from what characterizes a complex of temples, monasteries and monastic dormitories. ‘Budur’ comes from the Balinese ‘Beduhur’, meaning something like ‘it’ means. Thus does ‘Borobudur’ a complex of temples, monasteries and monastic dormitories are located on a hill.
In fact, the remains of buildings in the northwestern part of the farm were found to pose a monastery. JG De Casparis has a discovery made based on the inscriptions of Cri Kahuluan (842 AD). The name “Borobudur” is evident from the inscription mentioned the name derived. Unfortunately, the name is not mentioned there intact. The full name will probably have ‘Bhumisambharabudhara’ must have read, meaning something like ‘The monks of the accumulation of virtues on the ten stages of bodhisattva means’. Also there is a village near the Borobudur named ‘Bumisegara’, which supports this theory.
The date of construction
To date, the exact time of the construction of the Borobudur remained in the dark, justified by the absence of written evidence. Experts estimate an approximate completion date by an inscription on the base of the Borobudur temple covered. This Sanskrit inscriptions are written in the notation of the Kawi. Once these characters have been compared with other inscriptions from Indonesia, the experts estimate the date of creation to the year 800.
Central Java was at the time of the kings Sailendra ruled dynasty, the followers of the Mahayana Buddhism were. As a monument of Borobudur Mahayana Buddhism is, the experts concluded that it was built during the reign of these kings.
The Borobudur in oblivion
About a half centuries of Borobudur, the spiritual center of Buddhism in Java. With the fall of the Hindu Kingdom of Mataram in the year 919 and the change of political and cultural activities of Central Java to East Java, Central Java in religious buildings have been neglected, such as the Borobudur and left to decay. There may have been around 930 a volcanic eruption that expelled the population of the region. The Borobudur was now abandoned to the mercy of the elements. Tropical vegetation overgrown stones. Specifically, the higher parts collapsed, while other parts were damaged. The Borobudur fell into obscurity for almost 1000 years.
Borobudur is not only a unique religious monument but also an important source of information about Javanese history. The people depicted, their clothes, houses, cars, ships, equipment, instruments, dances, etc. show the court and rural life in Java of the 9th Century, as it is documented anywhere. The complex located on the grounds of the Archaeological Museum collection includes a number exchanged during the 1973-1983 restoration of original stones and Buddha. It also details the restoration measures.