Banff Nationalpark - In the Canadian province of Alberta, located in Banff National Park was established in 1885 and is the oldest National Park of Canada , North America’s second oldest and third oldest in the world. With its 6641 km ² it is one of the major national parks in the Canadian Rocky Mountains. The park takes its name after the Scottish Banffshire, the home region of two sponsors of the Union Pacific Railway, was discovered in 1883 during the construction of a hot spring in a cave. There was the village of Banff. The national park was developed by the UNESCO for World Heritage declared.
The Canadian Rocky Mountains are about 600 million years ago by the collision of two tectonic plates arisen. This ancient sea floor was pushed up.
The First Nations had lived since about 11,000 years ago in the area of the current park. The first Europeans were commissioned by the Royal Geographical Society in the Palliser expedition on the road, looking for a route for the railway to the west. Palliser also explored alongside James Hector, the Bow Valley, came across the “Bow Pass” and also found the Lyell glacier. There were other expeditions, but the greatest discovery was only in 1883 during construction of the Union Pacific Railway made.
During construction of the Union Pacific Railway, the original inhabitants of the area, three railway workers showed the source of the hot pool in the cave. The three knew instantly what she had discovered a treasure, could not but some of its exploitation. Two years later the Canadian government is relieved of these problems and they said at first only a relatively small region a protected area and on 23 June 1887 with the “Rocky Mountains Park Act,” a National Park.
The Union Pacific Railway makes a detour through the park because of the steeper southern and Kicking Horse Pass, during the period just before the First World War finished the route Grand Trunk Pacific Railway over the simpler Yellowhead Pass to Jasper leads. In the 1930s, nor did the Icefields Parkway from Banff to Jasper. The highway leading to the example at the Columbia Ice field and the Athabasca Falls over. The last thing was the Trans-Canada Highway built through the park and in 1965 completed.
The park is home to many large animal species, including moose, elk, bighorn sheep, mountain goat, black bear, grizzly bear, lynx, wolf and coyote. Many bird species use mainly located in Vermilion Lakes Park as a resting place.
The Banff National Park is now the park in Canada’s Rocky Mountains, which is characterized most by the conflict between nature conservation and mass tourism. Every year about five million people, the park focuses on the process, the Besucheranstrom few points on the summer holiday season. Due to the growing volume of traffic had already over-and underpasses for animals and built miles of fences to be erected, because in addition to two railway lines leading Trans-Canada Highway through parts of the park. By strict speed limits one tries to avoid collisions with wildlife.
But the winter has increased tourism in the area because it is increasingly developed as a ski resort. Just at that time the main valley of the Bow River is of vital importance for many animals, so that they are found frequently in the 6,000-inhabitant town of Banff. The road development has the distance protection, which has largely excluded the area of human use is greatly reduced. The park management plans with various attempts to limit the damage, but the exploitation interests are very strong.
This is a distinct lack of knowledge about all species that pose a “big game”. 1999 first tourists were sentenced to high fines because she had been bathing in hot springs. So they had unknowingly just living here, and taken at this time perhaps 1500-15000 copies snails comprehensive population at risk. Since they are in a position to extremely unfavorable conditions, adjust heat and toxic substances, especially, is concerned for a long time a research project with john Physella soni , also Banff Springs snail called. She was the first mollusc species, which appeared on the list of threatened species (1997). According to early observations since 1926 and younger since the 1990s, they lived in nine places, today only five that are in many tourists visited areas. As there are also other animal and plant species as endangered, the park administration is increasingly coming under criticism, as well as dealing with tourism.