Armenia a landlocked country in the Caucasus (Asia Minor). It is in the hill country between Georgia, Azerbaijan, the Iran and Turkey. The state corresponds to the northeastern part of the formerly much larger Armenian settlement area (see Armenistan) and resolution achieved with the USSR its independence in 1991.
Armenia is situated at the junction between Asia Minor and (the so named from a European perspective), Transcaucasia, between 38 ° 51 ‘and 41 ° 16′ north latitude and 43 ° 29 ‘and 46 ° 37′ east longitude. The current state covers an area of 29,800 square kilometers in the north east of the Armenian highlands and on the southern edge of the Lesser Caucasus.
The land area of Armenia is about as large as that of the German state of Brandenburg. It is bordered to the north by Georgia, Azerbaijan to the east, in the southeast, Iran to the south by the Azerbaijani exclave of Nakhichevan and from southwest to west by Turkey. The present population is about three million.
Armenia is a very strong mountain country – since 90% of the country are more than 1000 meters above sea level, the average height is as high as 1800 meters. From the north lie the more than 3000 meters high foothills of the Lesser Caucasus. The highest peak is the extinct volcano Aragats (4090 m) (close to the Biblical Ararat), the lowest point is around 380 meters high on the river Aras on the border with Iran and Azerbaijan. The area lies in a fold mountains – it was and still is changing by the collision of the Eurasian plate with the Arabian plate – and is correspondingly high seismic risk (see also the fault line). The rock is often volcanic in origin. Among the various copper oxides proven mineral resources are most important, as a by-product molybdenum containing iron and gold, uranium addition, various semi-metals, precious stones and rocks such as tuff, basalt, marble and a. There are also mineral springs whose waters for medicinal purposes, and is used in everyday use.
The largest lake in the east of Armenia is Yerevan about 1900 meters high located Lake Sevan is currently an area of about 940 square kilometers. Due to its water intake area has declined significantly (1984: 1262 square kilometers). The longest rivers of Armenia are macaws, Vorotan, Kazakhstan, Hrazdan and Debed.