Argentina is on the Atlantic side of the Cono Sur , the southern tip of South America . It is the seventh largest country in the world, offering travelers a wide variety of landscapes and cultures.
Argentina can roughly be divided into seven major regions. The Pampa is the economic heartland of Argentina and is located in the central east of the country. There is a wide grassy plain, which is now used for intensive agriculture, particularly for livestock, which is why it is sometimes jokingly called “the biggest cow pasture in the world.” In this region are the most major cities in the country, including the capital Buenos Aires . The pampas covers the province of Buenos Aires , the province of La Pampa and the southern province of Santa Fe and Córdoba .
Mesopotamia , the land between is called the north-east of the country, which is located between two rivers, the Río Paraná and Río Uruguay is located. While the south is flat, are in the northeast, in the province of Misiones to find low mountain ranges. The waterfalls ofIguazu are the biggest attraction of the area. Mesopotamia includes the province of Entre Ríos , the province of Corrientes and Misiones province .
The Argentine Chaco is a flat savannah landscape that connects the west to Mesopotamia. While the east is wet and is used for intensive agriculture, the West has in the winter months a long dry period with frequent droughts. There lies the Impernetrable , an impenetrable jungle-bush. The Chaco covers the province of Formosa , the province of Chaco and Santiago del Estero province , and the eastern province of Salta and the north of the province of Santa Fe and Córdoba .
The Sierras Pampeanas are a highland region in central and western Argentina. The mountain ranges in some cases reach heights of up to 5,500 meters and are mostly covered by dry bushland. Best known as a tourist destination are theSierras de Córdoba in the homonymous province. This region includes the San Luis Province , eastern province of San Juan , the province of La Rioja , the province of Catamarca and the western province of Cordoba .
The Cuyo closes the west of the Sierras Pampin. It includes the Central Andes in the west and the east, a flat to undulating dry steppe, but thanks to the irrigation of vineyards. Is known for its particularly sunny climate Cuyo. It covers the province of San Luis , the province of Mendoza , the province of San Juan , and large parts of the province of La Riojaand Catamarca Province .
Patagonia is the south of Argentina, south of the Rio Colorado , called. It’s a dry bush steppe with a windy, but mild climate. The area is sparsely populated, but has many attractions like the Peninsula Valdés . Patagonia is formed by theprovince of Río Negro , the Province of Neuquen , the Chubut province , the province of Santa Cruz and the Argentine part of Tierra del Fuego, the province of Tierra del Fuego .
The Andean Northwest is the border area with Chile and Bolivia . He is of diverse mountain ranges between the high levelpuna dominated the 3,500 m altitude and subtropical forest areas of Argentina and is the area with most buildings dating from the colonial period. It covers the province of Jujuy , the province of Tucumán and Salta Province and the northernprovince of Catamarca .
Most major cities in Argentina, particularly the capital Buenos Aires act, by its very European flair ago, as have settled in them many immigrants from Europe. Buenos Aires is about as “the Paris of South America”. Especially the cities in the north of the country work against even more so in Europe, Latin America as one imagines – colorful, chaotic and even poorer.
The land at the southern tip of South America extends over 3,500 km from north to south, and thus from the tropics to the polar zones of Tierra del Fuego and the subantarctic islands. It has been in spite of its many scenic and cultural attractions not yet ravaged by mass tourism, apart from a few limited locations. In many regions, despite the incredible nature tourist is still made largely on their own.
The country was in the last few years mainly because of the severe economic crisis in 2001/02 in the headlines. The results shown in the sensationalist media images of violent demonstrations have certainly leave the impression that the country in anarchy had broken out, but the situation has stabilized, given the gravity of the crisis relatively quickly.
A certain indifference and politics seem to have acquired many Argentines. Also, the Argentines in this respect, a relatively quiet people who show “the bad weather is a good face,” as a popular saying goes. The traveler will notice, therefore, that despite occasional and quite justifiably Mecker land about politicians, the people perish in no case can the life of the economic situation. If at all possible, an “asado” barbecue, drinking and partying. The melancholy and the frustration is presented most clearly in the tango-song phrase, and finally returned to their homeland, some Argentines frustrated and disillusioned after the crisis, back, and migrated to Europe in the countries of their ancestors.
At about 15 000 before Christ came the first people in the region of present-day Argentina. Until the arrival of the Spaniards in the 16th Century developed several non-sedentary and sedentary tribal cultures. From 13 Century expanded the empire of the Incas to the south and increasingly accepted in the 15th Century, large parts of northwestern Argentina one.
The Spaniard started from 1502 with the conquest and colonization of Argentina. Of Peru from the north west of the country (province was Jujuy ) and taken from the river system west of the Rio Plata. From 1580 the Rio de la Plata was permanently settled. The Spaniard added the Argentinean regions of the Viceroyalty of Peru. 1776, the Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata has been eliminated, the next to Argentina and from Bolivia , Paraguay and Uruguay was. Its capital was largely insignificant until then Buenos Aires, which could quickly multiply from that time its population and become the undisputed center of the country developed.
The May Revolution of 1810 in Buenos Aires was first expressed aspirations for independence, but had no visibility. A year later split off from the countries Paraguay composite. Independence was schließlicham 9th Reached in July 1816 liberation war against the Spaniards. In the subsequent period is then divided Bolivia (1825) and Uruguay (1828) also from the United Provinces of Río de la Plata from.
The further development of Argentina in the 19th Century was marked by dictatorships and long civil war between Buenos Aires and the rest of the provinces, which lasted into the 1870s. In a war with Paraguay (1864-1870) was the federal states of Argentina, Misiones , Formosa and Chaco gain. From 1880, when hostilities in the country were largely complete, and Buenos Aires was finally chosen as the capital, set up a migrant flows mainly from Italy and Spain. During this time, the political fortunes of the country were determined mainly by the rich landowners. An existing since the early 1890s, the border dispute between Chile and Argentina can be settled in 1902 by the British king Edward VII. As a result, are Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego redistributed.
It was not until 1912, after prolonged civil unrest introduced a true democracy with universal suffrage. This phase lasts only briefly, from 1930, the policy characterized by alternating between military dictatorships and democratic governments. The 1930s were a notorious decade (Decade infamous) in the country’s history, and in them was merely a corrupt image of a democracy. From 1943, various military coup governments in power.
During World War II Argentina was officially neutral, was a destination for many refugees from Europe. Argentina gained a negative reputation as a refuge after the war for high-ranking Nazis, including Adolf Eichmann and Josef Mengele. In 1946, during the first free elections in 20 years, Juan Domingo Peron, after a successful career in the military president of Argentina. After the Second World War, the massive industrialization in the country previously dominated by agriculture. Perón also keep extensive rights to workers that make him very popular among the poor population. Following an economic crisis of the early ’50s his popularity takes off, however, in 1955 he resigned after serious riots.
The period between 1955 and 1983 is characterized by political instability and changing civil and military governments. The discontent of the citizens about this situation explodes into numerous uprisings and guerrilla activities. Even Perón, the short period 1974-1975 will be re-elected president can not stop the economic decline. From 1976, a right-wing military junta under Jorge Rafael Videla, about 30,000 people under the leadership installed under the pretext of fighting guerrilla “disappeared” and murdered. During this time also begin re border disputes with Chile (to be settled peacefully 10 years later) and occupied in April 1982 Argentina belonging to the United Kingdom Falkland Islands (Argentine Islas Malvinas ). On 14 End of June 1982 Falklands War with Argentina’s surrender, which sealed the decline of the military government. She is survived by her citizens a severe economic crisis and foreign debt issues that plague the country today.
From 1983, the democracy moves back into the country. New president Raul Alfonsin, who is stepping down but after a severe economic crisis in 1989 with hyperinflation. Successor, Carlos Menem of the Peronist party is that the coupling of the dollar to the peso finally seemingly creates the desired economic stability.From 1998, his dubious and corrupt money politics leads to a further economic crisis. Only Menem was replaced in 1999 and finally 2001, Fernando de la Rúa, after it was announced that Argentina will now be covered, no further loans from the IMF will be more. Created and unrest throughout the country reached their Höhpunkt, when enacted some questionable decisions of various interim president, which partially lingered only a few days in office. Among other things, all bank accounts were frozen and released the peso from the dollar and thus introduced a new inflation, the Argentine left behind by the people with a fraction of his savings. Until 2003 the country is of an interim president, and after a chaotic election in 2003 by Néstor Kirchner. Under the liberal because of his domestic policy and foreign policy, not because of his undisputed left Peronist Kirchner, Argentina seems to be at least economically and politically slow to recover.